All about resorts and resting-places of Brazil


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According to the form of state-territorial Brazil is a federation (Union). It is divided into 26 states and the federal district where the capital is located, municipalities. In addition, in the federation are three federal territories subordinated to the central government.

The current Constitution was adopted in 1988 and is the eighth in the history of the country.

The form of Brazil - a presidential republic. Separation of powers is very similar to the U.S. model, but the powers of the President of Brazil is much wider. Democratic political regime. The highest legislative body - the bicameral National Congress consists of the House of Representatives (487 members) and the Federal Senate (72 members). Both chambers are elected by direct and secret ballot (deputies for 4 years, the senators - 8 years).

The Chamber of Deputies is a body of national representation. The number of members from each state in proportion to its population, but should not be less than 6. Federal territories are represented by two deputies (each). Deputies are elected by proportional representation and rule the highest average. Federal Senate (the upper house) is the Federation. Each state, as the Federal District, represented by three senators. Senators are elected by the majority system. Every 4 years the Senate renewed alternately by 1/3 and 2/3.

The National Congress has the usual for Latin American parliaments powers: determination of taxes and the allocation of public revenues, approval of long-term plan, the budgetary guidelines, the annual budget, credit, public debt and the money supply, to establish and change the size of the armed forces, national and regional development programs, national borders , air and sea space, and ownership of, merger, division or separation of the territories or states, and amnesty, the administrative structure of the judicial system, the organization of the General Prosecutor Office and the State Bar Association of the Republic, territories and the federal district, the creation, transformation and liquidation of public office and positions, the creation, structuring and responsibilities of ministries and government agencies.

Exclusive prerogative of the Congress is: ratification of international treaties and agreements, to authorize the President to declare war, make peace, to permit the passage of foreign troops through the national territory or of their time in the area, the permission of the President or Vice-President to leave the country, if not doing so would exceed the 15 days, authorizing the President declared martial law or state of siege, federal intervention and the suspension of the measures; election 2/3 of the Federal Audit Court; authorizing referendums and plebiscites, control over the activities of the federal administration.

For the implementation of the last Congress the authority vested with the following rights: to consider each year reports submitted by the President of the Republic, and evaluate the implementation of government programs, supervise and control, directly or through the Federal Senate, and (or) the Chamber of Deputies, the acts of the executive branch, including the acts of indirect administration; suspend executive legislation that exceed its regulatory powers. Each of the chambers of the National Congress has also its own competence.

The Chamber of Deputies may be 2/3 vote to initiate impeachment proceedings against the President, Vice-President and the federal ministers, elected members of the Council of the Republic, to take its own rules and to organize their own services. Powers of the Senate are much wider: he decides the responsibility of the President, Vice-President and the federal ministers, members of the Federal Supreme Court, the Attorney General, General Counsel of the Republic, agrees to the appointment of judges, governors in the federal territories, the chairman and directors of the Central Bank, heads permanent diplomatic missions, permits the production of external financial operations of the Union, Federal District, states and municipalities, shall appoint some of the members of the Board of the Brazilian parliament, and others working in the sessional order annually it meets in two sessions. In some cases, branches meet jointly at the opening of the regular session, the formulation of the rules of parliamentary chambers together and change it, if you receive messages of the President of the Republic, on the question of the President veto on the bill.

Legislative initiative belongs to the members of Congress, the President of the Republic, the Federal Supreme Court, the highest tribunals, the Attorney General of the Republic and the citizens of the Republic in the cases and in the subjects specified in the Constitution. Bills on certain issues (eg, the organization of the federal administration) and projects delegating laws can only be made by the President. Draft law according to the people initiative submitted to the Chamber of Deputies at least one hundredth part of the national electorate, together representing at least five states. Discussion and voting laws, an initiative of the President, the Federal Supreme Court and the highest courts, begins in the Chamber of Deputies.

Bill approved by one chamber, we consider another ward and, if approved, sent for promulgation, and in the event of denied. If the bill is amended, it is returned to the original room. After the law was perhaps his appeal on the grounds of unconstitutionality, and the President of the Republic has the right to veto, which he uses for 15 days prior to promulgation.

National Congress can overcome a presidential veto in the 30-day period, an absolute majority of deputies and senators in joint session. Chambers of the National Congress (separately and together) form investigative commissions. The House of Representatives and the Federal Senate, as well as any of their committee may invite Minister to provide certain information in advance, and its absence without good cause lead to criminal prosecution.

The Head of State, the government and the Supreme Commander of the President of the Republic, who is elected directly by the citizens for 4 years (until 1994 - 5 years), non-renewable. At the same time the President was elected Vice-President.

As head of state President assigns decorations and honorary titles; grant pardons and reduce sentences, and appoint, upon approval of the Federal Senate, the judges of the Federal Supreme Court and High Court, Governor of the Territory, the Attorney General of the Republic, the President and Directors of the Central Bank and other state civil employees, as required by law, other federal judges and Advocate-General of the Republic, part of the judges of the Federal Court Tribunal Council of the Republic and the Council of National Defense (with the consent of the Senate).

In the area of external relations establish relations with foreign countries and provides accreditation of their diplomatic representatives, sign international treaties and agreements. In the field of legislation the President exercises the right of legislative initiative, order, promulgate laws and dispose of their publication, has the right to veto legislation, delegated legislation shall, in case of emergency issue acts with the force of law (and then submitted them to Congress).

In the field of internal and external security of the President has the power to declare war and siege, declare federal intervention, and to exercise supreme command of the armed forces, to promote high officers and appoint them to office; convene and preside over the Council of the Republic and the Council of National Defense, etc. President implements the executive at the federal level with the ministers of state. As chief executive, he appoints and dismisses federal ministers, senior management performs state administration, sends to Congress when the legislative session opened, the government communication and a plan describing the situation in the country and requiring action needed is for Congress multi-year plans, budget and budget proposals established in the Constitution. Each state has its own constitution, which must conform to the principles of the federal Basic Law.

The system of government and management in the states is largely similar to the federal. Each state has a unicameral legislature (elected for 4 years), popularly elected governor of the state is the head of government. States have their own court system, working on the basis of the principles established by the federal Constitution.



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